Interagro Lusitanos started developing in Brazil in 1975 and today is the world’s largest breeder of race . In Brazil, Interagro Lusitanos are carefully crafted from selected strains . With the import of valuable stallions and mares, this stud farm preserves pure the main lines of race.
In 1991 , the Brazilian Association of Breeders of Lusitano Horse – ABPSL concluded with the APSL – Portuguese Association of Thoroughbred Breeders Lusitano one reciprocities Protocol, which makes all purebred Lusitanos registered in Brazil are also welcomed to the Stud Book Portuguese and in all countries that have similar agreement with Portugal . Brazilian horse Lusitano are so universally recognized .
In our country , all national races descended from horses brought by the first Portuguese settlers and those who entered the migratory frontier described in the previous section . The Lusitano Horse originated in Brazil the Mangalarga and Campolina .
The first was created in Minas Gerais, by Gabriel Francisco Junqueira, Alfenas baron who in 1821 received as a gift from King John VI , the Alter stallion “Sublime” with which benefited a group of Crioulo mares.
The Campolina date 1840, from your farmer’s name Cassiano Campolina that Began its creation in southern Minas Gerais , with mares that have been covered by stallions imported into the Cachoeira do Campo Real stud by King John VI.
After this real introduction, little news has Lusitano in Brazil. It was only in the last century , in the 70s , he reappears in São Paulo brought from Portugal by the creator of Toledo Antonio Mendes Pereira, who in 1974 founded the so- called Association of the Andalusian Horse Breeders.
In addition to the quantity, the most significant is the quality of the Brazilian squad achieved herons acquiring great level of animals in Portugal and the careful selection carried out by national creators , thus assured the national effective a standard of quality that nothing should to any other.
In June 1994 the Brazilian Association had 163 members, which in turn had 2189 registered purebreds , with 943 domestic and imported 282 females and 876 males and 88 national import. The crossbred totaled on that date in 2657 heads. Every year is accelerating the expansion of the herd and social framework and , as a result of high demand and appreciation of the breed animals is likely that in a few years , Brazil has become the largest maker PSL worldwide.
This is the summary of a long history that spans over 4,000 years ! Know it is very important because it is draw lessons and avoid repeating past mistakes . An ancient race no more to innovate ; only preserve a precious reality. The race itself , well preserved, will be responsible for producing its evolution and necessary improvements and adjustments.
The use of cavalry as a weapon of war in the Iberian Peninsula is very previous to that we know the rest of the ancient world , dating back to the second millennium B.C. There is no evidence of saddle horse use in antiquity ; iconography of Babylon and ancient Egypt , only appear hitched horses pulling chariots.
It is known that even before the Neolithic period has used the domesticated horse in the Iberian Peninsula . Archaeological finds such as the tombs of warriors in the south of the peninsula , demonstrate to have existed in the Bronze Age , groups who fought mounted , while the infants carried halberds , which are themselves weapons to overthrow riders.
Homer in the Iliad ( Canto XVI) mentions the Iberians Horses , swift as the wind and the children of Harpy Podargo , fertilized by the wind Zephir when grazing the meadows the banks of the River Ocean ( the Atlantic ) . Brakes, iron horseshoes and weapons dating from Celtic invasions ( century . X and V BC ) prove the continuity of the use of cavalry in the Iberian Peninsula . Thucydides and Xenophon have reported that a group of Iberian riders was sent by Dionysius of Syracuse in aid to the Spartans in the Peloponnesian War ( century . IV a.C )
“The description of the Punic Wars by Strabo is full of references to Eximios Lusitanian knights easily reached abrupt eminences where riders from other nations did not venture.”
The invasion of Spain by the Carthaginians ( century . B.C. ) Iberian horses inflict heavy losses to the invaders , Amílcar dying , father of Hannibal. This , when part to Italy , takes a large contingent ( 12,000 horses ) of the Iberian cavalry. Strabo , reporting these campaigns , consider the Lusitanian Eximios riders who reached ” abrupt eminences where riders from other nations did not venture .” Hasdrubal, Hannibal’s brother , he took Iberian horses to Carthage.
The horse that originated here in America and later extinguished , here returned , in the form of the Iberian horse brought by the Spanish conquistadors . This return was given initially in Hispaniola ( San Domingo ) , with the first horses and mares that Columbus brought on his second voyage in 1493. From there , spread the islands of Puerto Rico , Cuba and Jamaica and of them to America Central and Colombia , where went to Peru , Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile. They arrived in Mexico with Cortez and then expanded to the west of North America . In South America arrived in 1535 brought by Pedro Mendoza. On the other hand , the abandoned horses, when the Buenos Aires destruction by the Indians , formed the basis of numerous herds of cimarrones or Baguales , which in turn gave rise to the Criollo horse. Cabeza de Vaca in 1541 , brought horses to Paraguay , landing on the Brazilian coast , probably in Santa Catarina.
All horsy races formed in the Americas are directly or indirectly descended from Iberian horses. In the United States , Mustang or Mesteno , the Quarter Horse , Appaloosa , the Seminola and Cayuse Indian or Poney . In South America , Creole , that unless the environment changes , is the same horse from north to south of the subcontinent.
“All races formed the American continent , as Mustang, Quarter Horse , Appaloosa , Seminola , Cayuse , Mangalarga , Criollo , Campolina , etc. descended directly or indirectly from the Iberian horse .”
In the imperial period , as evidenced by Polybius and Livy , the Iberian riders were terrible opponents to the Roman legions during wars that lasted more than 200 years. The Romans , as reported by Dr. José Monteiro:
“… Never were notable for their cavalry, always hit the Iberian cavalry … The very tactics of combat and riding Peninsula are adopted by the Romans. Great reputation as a horse rider and trainer had the Lusitanian Caius Apuleius Diocles … who lived in the third century of our era and had a statue in Rome, in the Campus Martius . “
According to Dr. Ruy d’ Andrade, hipólogo and ” father of the line ” Andrade , the statues of Balbo , Caligula (with Incitatus , horse high tempos ) and later of Marcus Aurelius (who was Spanish) are obvious signs the Iberian horse that used the Romans.
The barbarians who occupied Iberia ( 409 ) did not disappear Roman civilization and horse breeding continued. Isidoro in ” Lauds Hispanie ” says the Iberian horses were the best in the world.
Romans and Carthaginians and all other invaders brought animals from Italy, Libya, Numidia and Mauritania and other regions in the successive incursions made in the Iberian Peninsula .
However, as well says Ruy d’ Andrade:
“… Calm and the rest that came to Spain from 100 BC to about 500 AD represent a period of about 600 years , which increased by over 250 years of Godo period ( 450-700 AD) complete a total more than 800 years , more than enough time for the formation and establishment of a fully adapted race in half.”
In the Arab invasion, the versions are different and contradictory , as shown by Dr. José Monteiro:
“… the invasion of the Peninsula by the Muslims was made with miniature cavalry … almost exclusively berber , others evaluate it in 17,000 knights and others still 30,000”.
During the long Moorish domination ( 711-1492 ) was introducing new blood by African imports from Morocco. However , not having the time large racial differences between the horses in North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula, this new blood addition , like previous ones, was absorbed without changing the native homogeneous racial type. Knowing however that the Iberian horse delighted the new invaders , continuing during the Moorish occupation to develop the creation of the Iberian Peninsula and there are large exports of animals to Africa and the East.
The Middle Ages was another statement period the value of the Iberian horse, used in the Crusades warriors as Richard the Lionheart ( 1119 ).
“For Europe of the Middle Ages , the Iberian was the true blooded horse and it was exported to everywhere to light horses ” wrote Dr. Ruy d’ Andrade.
During the Renaissance , the Iberian horses stood out in Italy under the domination of Ginnetes and Villani , who were probably the result of crosses with horses coming from France , Flanders and Germany. This influence more accentuated in Spain at the time of Charles V, Philip II and Philip III , who had introduced the Neapolitan horse.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries sought to get larger horses and riders able to take dresses heavy metal armor . From 1700 also starts up the demand for draft animals , because the roads were already better , allowing particularly in France and Spain the use of cars and carts .
Dating from the eighteenth century, the beginning of the great differentiation evident today between the Spanish and Portuguese horses . As reported José Tello Barradas:
“… Although there were several factors to condition the difference between what is now considered Andalusian and Lusitano breeds , I believe that weighed more was the appearance and full implementation of bullfighting on foot in Spain … that appears in the eighteenth century beginnings…”
Full Arsenio Raposo Cordeiro:
“The abandonment of bullfighting on foot in Spain requires a new selection of horse … which is now used as recreational riding and light draft animal , where the exuberance of its highest and less progressive movements was quite blatant . However in Portugal , with the continuity of horseback bullfighting, was up giving the Lusitano horse a more careful selection , to produce an animal with real potential for the practice of bullfighting, which are not psychic muscle strength and progressive movements , with capacity reductions and sudden speed-ups.”
From the nineteenth century , with the advent of mail, road improvements and the introduction of railways , the saddle horse known relative decline , accentuated in the next century , especially after the Great War ( 1914-18 ) , by car and by injection of English and Arabic bloods in the military remontas .
“The Iberian horses were in their own Peninsula victims of these fashions. Of them only escaped some herds of vernaculars and conservative creators , living realities , who would not know the news. ” wrote Dr. Ruy d’ Andrade says.
The strength of the race was superior to all these historical accidents and new , for higher or worse than have been these exogenous or fads blood incursions , the Iberian horse always eventually triumph and we are witnessing now in the world, a vigorous revival of demand for these fabulous animals and the consequent enhancement of marketing race.
Just as the few thousand inferior horses that century barbarians . V brought not changed a mass of more than half a million horses in the Iberian Peninsula at that time also the introduction of Arab blood in the centuries VII to XV or blood north brought the fad of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries had no appreciable effect.
As the American colonization demonstrated herds of mares created field with loose horses, revert to the original type and ” the spurious disappears expelled by inadaptability” (Dr. Ruy d’ Andrade).
For this reason it stood pure Iberian Horse, although size variants , type and especially of use in the various regions of Spain and Portugal . In 1967 he founded the Studbook Portuguese Equine ( Stud Book) , whose maintenance was the responsibility of the Portuguese Association of Lusitano breeders.